I am puzzled by some drawings in a museum in Madrid.
A couple of years ago I visited the Museum of the Americas. The first gallery is devoted to early European representations of the Americas, and I was particularly struck by some very carefully proportioned and detailed drawings, 15th or early 16th century I suppose, of native American people. They were life-size if I remember right. What was so striking was that there was just one thing wrong with these representations. They were monstrous. Heads in the wrong place.
Why were these drawings done, by whom, for whom, what purpose was to be served? I was hampered by not being able to read Spanish, other than by guesswork. Too late, I wished I had paid more attention to these exhibits, and found someone I could ask. I've asked in University College Cork but haven't found anyone who is acquainted with them. The Museum of the Americas has disregarded my emails. Quite right too as I wrote in English.
My curiosity was renewed by attending a lecture given at UCC in 2009 about depictions of peoples on the Scandinavian peninsula by Adam of Bremen, an 11th century geographer. The Scandinavians were supposed by some at that time to be dog-heads, so there seems to be a parallel impulse at work.
My suspicion was that the monstrous depictions I saw in Madrid formed part of a campaign to convince the church authorities back home that the peoples of South America were non-human and could be enslaved. The Vatican actually ruled them to be human, with souls in need of salvation. This was due to the tireless efforts of certain Jesuits and Catholic priests which is an interesting story in itself. 16th century Spain was amazingly sophisticated compared to northern Europe. In Spain slavery was a matter of debate 200 years earlier than in England. (I got this from a lecture on slavery by Nini Rogers, Queens University Belfast.)
Of course none of this actually stopped slavery.
|Monstrous races image (Madame Pickwick Art Blog)|
He referred me to the Hereford map. This is a map of the world produced in England around the year 1300. I was directed to a book in the UCC library by Scott D. Westrem The Hereford Map : a transcription and translation of the legends with commentary (1953). The map is circular, its centre is Jerusalem, with Europe from 6 o’clock to 9 o’clock, Asia from 9 o’clock to 3 o’clock, and Africa 3 o’clock to 6 o’clock. Monstrous races and south-western islands form a ring at the edge of Africa.
|The Hereford mappa mundi|
The top image depicts monstrous races and is the best I've found through Google, though it doesn’t really do justice to the figures on the Hereford map. The man sheltering from the sun under a huge foot is located in India. There’s a doghead. And the one with mouth and eyes in his chest is a Blemmye.
All these monstrous races and indeed most of the information on the map seems to rely on the authority of ancient Greek and Roman sources.
Of course it’s perfectly possible that both explanations apply to those depictions in the Museum of the Americas. That is, they were shaped by biblical, classical and medieval images and legends; and simultaneously they were part of a campaign to demean the American population to remove their human status and any legal barrier to their exploitation. What was unsettling about the drawings in the museum was that were designed to create the impression that they were done from life. And the more I think of it, the surer I am that they had a sinister purpose.
One day I'll go back to the Museum of the Americas and find someone who speaks English. Or I'll have to learn Spanish.
Recommendation of where to stay in Madrid : Hostal Barrera, c/ Atocha 96, 2º- 28012 Madrid.
Finally, does the Hereford map show any dog-heads in Scandinavia? No, however there's a man on skis, a bear and a furry monkey-like creature. According to the ancient source Aethicus Ister, the Scandinavians are non-human and evidently form part of the diet of Gog and Magog.
Notes: (1) Here's a Wikipedia article on Cynocephali (having the head of a dog).
(2) According to Tony Luppino on CBC radio, Marco Polo did not talk about monstrous races in his 13th century travels, but everyone thinks he did, because one of the first editions of his book had monstrous races illustrations. The Wikipedia article just cited claims gives a different account. Polo's Travels mentions dog-headed barbarians on the Andaman Islands, it claims. Though I wonder if the quotation supplied fully backs this claim up, as Polo is quoted as saying that these people are cruel and "are all just like big mastiff dogs".